Inclusive Teaching: Stressors, Impact of Stress, and Coping Strategies of Teachers in Public Schools

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Elvony P. Casungcad, Rhasie Jane P. Gantuangco, Niña M. Montemor, Love Faith M. Ricablanca, Archie L. Tangal, Joseph C. Pepito, Reylan G. Capuno, Honorio C. Añora, Imelda J. Villarin, Randy C. Mangubat, Emerson D. Peteros, Raymond C. Espina, Veronica O. Calasang


This study examined inclusive education’s stressors, impacts of stress, and coping strategies among 185 teachers recruited through complete enumeration from selected public schools in Mandaue City Division, Cebu, Philippines during the 2023-2024 school year. A descriptive-correlational research design was utilized to investigate relationships between the variables. Data was collected through a validated and structured questionnaire. Analysis of demographic profiles revealed the majority of respondents were female, aged 31-40 years with 6-10 years of experience. Over half were married. Most held some master's degree units, had received prior inclusive education training, and reported awareness of policies pertaining to inclusion. Results showed teachers experienced moderate overall stress from factors like workload, time constraints, disruptive student behaviors, and insufficient resources. Stress manifested occasionally as exhaustion, frustration, and feelings of being overwhelmed. Coping strategies included discussing issues with colleagues/family and engaging in relaxing activities, but were generally less utilized. Pearson r revealed a significant yet weak relationship between stressors and coping strategies. However, the relationship between stress impacts and coping strategies was non-significant. This suggests coping did not effectively mitigate detrimental stress effects. Notably, neither relationship was strong, with stressors more consistently linked to coping than impacts. These findings highlight the need for holistic teacher wellness programs in Mandaue City Division, addressing diverse challenges through targeted interventions like improved working conditions, adaptive skill-building, and various types of career-stage support. A multi-factorial approach considering the local context is needed to strengthen the resilience and retention of teachers within inclusive education long-term. The study validated the importance of optimizing teacher mental health and well-being given inclusion demands through a customized management plan. By systematically addressing educator needs, sustainability of quality inclusive services can be supported.


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